THE SCIENCE

Using our 17 years of experience running Bodybuilding.com and working with the world’s top trainers, athletes, and scientists, we have designed a workout program that will give you real fitness results. We know that if you don’t improve dramatically, you won’t come back, you won’t refer your friends, and we won’t be in business for long. Your transformation is our driving purpose.

The Black Box VR workout is based on the latest time-efficient protocols that have been proven to increase muscle, decrease body fat, build strength, increase cardiovascular endurance, and improve overall health and longevity.

Want proof? Here’s what the published science has to say about the protocols we have implemented:

  • Schoenfeld BJ, Ogborn D, Krieger JW. Effects of Resistance Training Frequency on Measures of Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med. 2016 Nov;46(11):1689-1697.
  • Schoenfeld BJ, Wilson JM, Lowery RP, Krieger JW. Muscular adaptations in low- versus high-load resistance training: A meta-analysis. Eur J Sport Sci. 2016;16(1):1-10
  • Kikuchi, Nakazato. Low-load bench press and push-up induce similar muscle hypertrophy and strength gain. J Exerc Sci Fit. 2017 Jun;15(1):37-42.
  • Grgic J, Schoenfeld BJ, Davies TB, Lazinica B, Krieger JW, Pedisic Z. Effect of Resistance Training Frequency on Gains in Muscular Strength: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med. 2018 Feb 22.
  • Schoenfeld BJ, Ogborn D, Contreras B, Cappaert T, Silva Ribeiro A, Alvar BA, Vigotsky AD. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training. Asian J Sports Med. 2016 Jan 16
  • Tjønna AE, Leinan IM, Bartnes AT, Jenssen BM, Gibala MJ, Winett RA, et al. (2013) Low- and High-Volume of Intensive Endurance Training Significantly Improves Maximal Oxygen Uptake after 10-Weeks of Training in Healthy Men. PLoS ONE 8(5): e65382. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065382
  • Hannan AL, Hing W, Simas V, Climstein M, Coombes JS, Jayasinghe R, Byrnes J, Furness J. High-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training within cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Sports Med. 2018 Jan 26
  • Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, et al. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a sys- tematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380(9859):2095–2128.
  • Aagaard, P, Simonsen, EB, Trolle, M, Bangsbo, J, and Klausen, K. Specificity of training velocity and training load on gains in isokinetic knee joint strength. Acta Physiol. Scand. 156: 123-129, 1996.
  • American College of Sports Medicine. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 41: 687-708, 2009.
  • Anderson, T, and Kearney, JT. Effects of three resistance training programs on muscular strength and absolute and relative endurance. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport 53: 1-7, 1982.
  • Au, JS, Oikawa, SY, Morton, RW, Macdonald, MJ, and Phillips, SM. Arterial Stiffness Is Reduced Regardless of Resistance Training Load in Young Men. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 49: 342-348, 2017.
  • Baechle, TR, Earle, RW. Essentials of strength training and conditioning. In: Anonymous Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2008.
  • Behm, DG. Neuromuscular implications and applications of resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 9: 264-274, 1995.
  • Borenstein, M, Hedges, LV, and Higgins, JPT. Effect sizes based on means. In: Introduction to Meta-Analysis. Anonymous United Kingdom: John Wiley and Sons, LTD, 2009. pp. 21-32.
  • Burd, NA, Mitchell, CJ, Churchward-Venne, TA, and Phillips, SM. Bigger weights may not beget bigger muscles: evidence from acute muscle protein synthetic responses after resistance exercise. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 37: 551-554, 2012.
  • Campos, GER, Luecke, TJ, Wendeln, HK, Toma, K, Hagerman, FC, Murray, TF, Ragg, KE, Ratamess, NA, Kraemer, WJ, and Staron, RS. Muscular adaptations in response to three different resistance-training regimens: specificity of repetition maximum training zones. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 88: 50-60, 2002.
  • Carpinelli, RN. The size principle and a critical analysis of the unsubstantiated heavier-is- better recommendation for resistance training. J Exerc Sci Fit 6: 67-86, 2008.
  • Netreba, AI, Popov, DV, Liubaeva, EV, Bravyi, I, Prostova, AB, Lemesheva, I, and Vinogradova, OL. Physiological effects of using the low intensity strength training without relaxation in single-joint and multi-joint movements. Ross. Fiziol. Zh. Im. I. M. Sechenova. 93: 27-38, 2007.
  • Ogasawara, R, Loenneke, JP, Thiebaud, RS, and Abe, T. Low-Load Bench Press Training to Fatigue Results in Muscle Hypertrophy Similar to High-Load Bench Press Training. Int J Clin Med. 4: 114-121, 2013.
  • Cooper, H, Hedges, L, and Valentine, J. The Handbook of Research Synthesis and Meta- Analysis. . New York; Russell Sage Foundation, 2009.
  • Dimitrova, NA, and Dimitrov, GV. Interpretation of EMG changes with fatigue: facts, pitfalls, and fallacies. J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol. 13: 13-36, 2003.
  • Elkins, MR, Herbert, RD, Moseley, AM, Sherrington, C, and Maher, C. Rating the quality of trials in systematic reviews of physical therapy interventions. Cardiopulm. Phys. Ther. J. 21: 20- 26, 2010.
  • Fink, J, Kikuchi, N, and Nakazato, K. Effects of rest intervals and training loads on metabolic stress and muscle hypertrophy. Clin. Physiol. Funct. Imaging , 2016.
  • Fink, J, Kikuchi, N, Yoshida, S, Terada, K, and Nakazato, K. Impact of high versus low fixed loads and non-linear training loads on muscle hypertrophy, strength and force development. Springerplus 5: 698-016-2333-z. eCollection 2016, 2016.
  • Fisher, J, Steele, J, and Smith, D. High- and Low-Load Resistance Training: Interpretation and Practical Application of Current Research Findings. Sports Med. 47: 393-400, 2017.
  • Fisher, JP, and Steele, J. Heavier and lighter load resistance training to momentary failure produce similar increases in strength with differing degrees of discomfort. Muscle Nerve , 2016.
  • Gonzalez, AM, Ghigiarelli, JJ, Sell, KM, Shone, EW, Kelly, CF, and Mangine, GT. Muscle activation during resistance exercise at 70% and 90% 1-repetition maximum in resistance-trained men. Muscle Nerve , 2016.
  • Greenhalgh, T, and Peacock, R. Effectiveness and efficiency of search methods in systematic reviews of complex evidence: audit of primary sources. BMJ 331: 1064-1065, 2005.
  • Hedges, LV, Tipton, E, and Johnson, MC. Robust variance estimation in meta-regression with dependent effect size estimates. Res. Synth. Methods 1: 39-65, 2010.
  • Henneman, E, Somjen, G, and Carpenter, DO. Functional Significance of Cell Size in Spinal Motoneurons. J. Neurophysiol. 28: 560-580, 1965.
  • Hisaeda, H, Miyagawa, K, Kuno, S, Fukunaga, T, and Muraoka, I. Influence of two different modes of resistance training in female subjects. Ergonomics 39: 842-852, 1996.
  • Hopkins, WG, Marshall, SW, Batterham, AM, and Hanin, J. Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 41: 3-13, 2009.
  • Jenkins, ND, Housh, TJ, Bergstrom, HC, Cochrane, KC, Hill, EC, Smith, CM, Johnson, GO, Schmidt, RJ, and Cramer, JT. Muscle activation during three sets to failure at 80 vs. 30% 1RM resistance exercise. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 115: 2335-2347, 2015.
  • Kerr, D, Morton, A, Dick, I, and Prince, R. Exercise effects on bone mass in postmenopausal women are site-specific and load-dependent. J. Bone Miner. Res. 11: 218-225, 1996.
  • Kummel, J, Kramer, A, Giboin, LS, and Gruber, M. Specificity of Balance Training in Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med. 46: 1261-1271, 2016.
  • Leger, B, Cartoni, R, Praz, M, Lamon, S, Deriaz, O, Crettenand, A, Gobelet, C, Rohmer, P, Konzelmann, M, Luthi, F, and Russell, AP. Akt signalling through GSK-3beta, mTOR and Foxo1 is involved in human skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy. J. Physiol. 576: 923-933, 2006.
  • Mattocks, KT, Buckner, SL, Jessee, MB, Dankel, SJ, Mouser, JG, and Loenneke, JP. Practicing the Test Produces Strength Equivalent To Higher Volume Training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. , 2017.
  • Mitchell, CJ, Churchward-Venne, TA, West, DD, Burd, NA, Breen, L, Baker, SK, and Phillips, SM. Resistance exercise load does not determine training-mediated hypertrophic gains in young men. J. Appl. Physiol. , 2012.
  • Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J, Altman, DG, and PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 6: e1000097, 2009.
  • Morris, B. Estimating effect sizes from pretest-posttest-control group designs. Organizational Research Methods 11: 364-386, 2008.
  • Morton, RW, Oikawa, SY, Wavell, CG, Mazara, N, McGlory, C, Quadrilatero, J, Baechler, BL, Baker, SK, and Phillips, SM. Neither load nor systemic hormones determine resistance training-mediated hypertrophy or strength gains in resistance-trained young men. J. Appl. Physiol. (1985) 121: 129-138, 2016.
  • Moseley, AM, Herbert, RD, Sherrington, C, and Maher, CG. Evidence for physiotherapy practice: a survey of the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Aust. J. Physiother. 48: 43- 49, 2002.
  • Netreba, A, Popov, D, Bravyy, Y, Lyubaeva, E, Terada, M, Ohira, T, Okabe, H, Vinogradova, O, and Ohira, Y. Responses of knee extensor muscles to leg press training of various types in human. Ross. Fiziol. Zh. Im. I. M. Sechenova. 99: 406-416, 2013.
  • Popov, DV, Tsvirkun, DV, Netreba, AI, Tarasova, OS, Prostova, AB, Larina, IM, Borovik, AS, and Vinogradova, OL. Hormonal adaptation determines the increase in muscle mass and strength during low-intensity strength training without relaxation. Fiziol. Cheloveka 32: 121-127, 2006.
  • Rana, SR, Chleboun, GS, Gilders, RM, Hagerman, FC, Herman, JR, Hikida, RS, Kushnick, MR, Staron, RS, and Toma, K. Comparison of early phase adaptations for traditional strength and endurance, and low velocity resistance training programs in college-aged women. J. Strength Cond Res. 22: 119-127, 2008.
  • Sampson, JA, and Groeller, H. Is repetition failure critical for the development of muscle hypertrophy and strength? Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports , 2015.
  • Schoenfeld, BJ, Contreras, B, Vigotsky, A, Sonmez, GT, and Fontana, F. Upper body muscle activation during low- versus high-load resistance exercise in the bench press. Isokinetics and Exercise Science 24: 217-224, 2016.
  • Schuenke, MD, Herman, JR, Gliders, RM, Hagerman, FC, Hikida, RS, Rana, SR, Ragg, KE, and Staron, RS. Early-phase muscular adaptations in response to slow-speed versus traditional resistance-training regimens. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 112: 3585-3595, 2012.
  • Stone, MH, and Coulter, SP. Strength/endurance effects from three resistance training protocols with women. . J Strength Cond Res 8: 231-234, 1994.
  • Tanimoto, M, and Ishii, N. Effects of low-intensity resistance exercise with slow movement and tonic force generation on muscular function in young men. J. Appl. Physiol. 100: 1150-1157, 2006.
  • Tanimoto, M, Sanada, K, Yamamoto, K, Kawano, H, Gando, Y, Tabata, I, Ishii, N, and Miyachi, M. Effects of whole-body low-intensity resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation on muscular size and strength in young men. J. Strength Cond Res. 22: 1926-1938, 2008.
  • Thompson, SG, and Sharp, SJ. Explaining heterogeneity in meta-analysis: a comparison of methods. Stat. Med. 18: 2693-2708, 1999.
  • Tipton, E. Small sample adjustments for robust variance estimation with meta-regression. Psychol. Methods 20: 375-393, 2015.
  • Van Roie, E, Bautmans, I, Boonen, S, Coudyzer, W, Kennis, E, and Delecluse, C. Impact of external resistance and maximal effort on force-velocity characteristics of the knee extensors during strengthening exercise: a randomized controlled experiment. J. Strength Cond Res. 27: 1118-1127, 2013.
  • Van Roie, E, Delecluse, C, Coudyzer, W, Boonen, S, and Bautmans, I. Strength training at high versus low external resistance in older adults: effects on muscle volume, muscle strength, and force-velocity characteristics. Exp. Gerontol. 48: 1351-1361, 2013.
  • Vinogradova, OL, Popov, DV, Netreba, AI, Tsvirkun, DV, Kurochkina, NS, Bachinin, AV, Bravyi, I, Liubaeva, EV, Lysenko, EA, Miller, TF, Borovik, AS, Tarasova, OS, and Orlov, OI. Optimization of training: development of a new partial load mode of strength training. Fiziol. Cheloveka 39: 71-85, 2013.
  • Weiss, LW, Coney, HD, and Clark, FC. Differential functional adaptations to short-term low- , moderate- and high-repetition weight training. J Strength Cond Res 13: 236-241, 1999.
  • Weiss, LW, Coney, HD, and Clark, FC. Gross measures of exercise-induced muscular hypertrophy. J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther. 30: 143-148, 2000.
  • Heran BS, Chen JM, Ebrahim S, et al. Exercise-based cardiac reha- bilitation for coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(7):CD001800.
  • Taylor RS, Brown A, Ebrahim S, et al. Exercise-based rehabilitation for patients with coronary heart disease: systematic review and meta- analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Med. 2004;116(10): 682–692.
  • National Heart Foundation of Australia. Secondary prevention of car- diovascular disease. 2010. Available from: http://heartfoundation.org. au/. Accessed August 1, 2017.
  • Anderson L, Thompson DR, Oldridge N, et al. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for coronary artery disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016(1):CD001800.
  • Price KJ, Gordon BA, Bird SR, Benson AC. A review of guidelines for cardiac rehabilitaiton exercise programmes: is there an international consensus? Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016;23(16):1715–1733.
  • Woodruffe S, Neubeck L, Clark RA, et al. Australian Cardiovascular Health and Rehabilitation Association (ACRA) core components of cardiovascular disease secondary prevention and cardiac rehabilitation 2014. Heart Lung Circ. 2015;24(5):430–441.
  • Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Cardiac Rehabilitation. A National Clinical Guideline. Edinburgh, Scotland: Sign; 2002.
  • Mezzani A, Hamm LF, Jones AM, et al. Aerobic exercise intensity assessment and prescription in cardiac rehabilitation: a joint position statement of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation and the Canadian Association of Cardiac Rehabilitation. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2013;20(3):442–467.
  • American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013.
  • Myers J, Prakash M, Froelicher V, Do D, Partington S, Atwood JE. Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise test- ing. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(11):793–801.
  • Swain DP, Franklin BA. Comparison of cardioprotective bene ts of vigorous versus moderate intensity aerobic exercise. Am J Cardiol. 2006;97(1):141–147.
  • Keteyian SJ, Brawner CA, Savage PD, et al. Peak aerobic capacity predicts prognosis in patients with coronary heart disease. Am Heart J. 2008;156(2):292–300.
  • Ehsani AA, Heath GW, Hagberg JM, Sobel BE, Holloszy JO. Effects of 12 months of intense exercise training on ischemic ST-segment depression in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 1981;64(6):1116–1124.
  • Cornish AK, Broadbent S, Cheema BS. Interval training for patients with coronary artery disease: a systematic review. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011;111(4):579–589.
  • Pattyn N, Coeckelberghs E, Buys R, Cornelissen VA, Vanhees L. Aerobic interval training vs. moderate continuous training in coronary artery disease patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2014;44(5):687–700.
  • Elliott AD, Rajopadhyaya K, Bentley DJ, Beltrame JF, Aromataris EC. Interval training versus continuous exercise in patients with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. Heart Lung Circ. 2015;24(2): 149–157.
  • Liou K, Ho S, Fildes J, Ooi SY. High intensity interval versus moderate intensity continuous training in patients with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis of physiological and clinical parameters. Heart Lung Circ. 2016;25(2):166–174.
  • Kessler HS, Sisson SB, Short KR. The potential for high-intensity interval training to reduce cardiometabolic disease risk. Sports Med. 2012;42(6):489–509.
  • Gibala MJ, Little JP, Macdonald MJ, Hawley JA. Physiological adap- tations to low-volume, high intensity interval training in health and disease. J Physiol. 2012;590(5):1077–1084.
  • Boutcher SH. High-intensity intermittent exercise and fat loss. J Obes. 2011;2011:868305.
    Rognmo Ø, Moholdt T, Bakken H, et al. Cardiovascular risk of high- versus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in coronary heart disease patients. Circulation. 2012;126(12):1436–1440.
  • Booth A, Clarke M, Dooley G, et al. The nuts and bolts of PROSPERO: an international prospective register of systematic reviews. Syst Rev. 2012;1:2.
  • Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG; PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses:the PRISMA statement. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151(4):264–269, W64.
  • Verhagen AP, de Vet HC, de Bie RA, et al. The Delphi list: a criteria list for quality assessment of randomized clinical trials for conducting systematic reviews developed by Delphi consensus. J Clin Epidemiol. 1998;51(12):1235–1241.
  • Kennelly J. Methodological Approach to Assessing the Evidence. In: Han- dler A, Kennelly J, Peacock N, editors. Reducing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Reproductive and Perinatal Outcomes. Boston, MA: Springer; 2011.
  • Lyons K, Radburn C, Orr R, Pope R. A pro le of injuries sustained by law enforcement of cers: a critical review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14(2). pii: E142.
  • Higgins JPT, Green S. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Version 5.1. Oxford: Cochrane Collaboration; 2011.
  • Simas V, Hing W, Pope R, Climstein M. Effects of water-based exercise on bone health of middle-aged and older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Open Access J Sports Med. 2017;8:39–60.
  • Higgins JP, Altman DG, Gøtzsche PC; Cochrane Bias Methods Group; Cochrane Statistical Methods Group. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ. 2011:343:d5928.
  • Jensen BE, Fletcher BJ, Rupp JC, Fletcher GF, Lee JY, Oberman A. Training level comparison study. Effect of high and low intensity exercise on ventilatory threshold in men with coronary artery disease. J Cardiopulm Rehabil. 1996;16(4):227–232.
  • Rognmo Ø, Hetland E, Helgerud J, Hoff J, Slørdahl SA. High intensity aerobic interval exercise is superior to moderate intensity exercise for increasing aerobic capacity in patients with coronary artery disease. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2004;11(3):216–222.
  • Warburton DE, McKenzie DC, Haykowsky MJ, et al. Effectiveness of high-intensity interval training for the rehabilitation of patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 2005;95(9):1080–1084.
  • Amundsen BH, Rognmo Ø, Hatlen-Rebhan G, Slørdahl SA. High- intensity aerobic exercise improves diastolic function in coronary artery disease. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2008;42(2):110–117.
  • Moholdt TT, Amundsen BH, Rustad LA, et al. Aerobic interval train- ing versus continuous moderate exercise after coronary artery bypass surgery: a randomized study of cardiovascular effects and quality of life. Am Heart J. 2009;158(6):1031–1037.
  • Benetti M, Araujo CL, Santos RZ. Cardiorespiratory tness and quality of life at different exercise intensities after myocardial infarction. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010;95(3):399–404.
  • Moholdt T, Aamot IL, Granøien I, et al. Aerobic interval training increases peak oxygen uptake more than usual care exercise training in myocardial infarction patients: a randomized controlled study. Clin Rehabil. 2012;26(1):33–44.
  • Rocco EA, Prado DM, Silva AG, et al. Effect of continuous and interval exercise training on the PETCO2 response during a graded exercise test in patients with coronary artery disease. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2012;67(6):623–628.
  • Currie KD, Dubberley JB, McKelvie RS, MacDonald MJ. Low-volume, high-intensity interval training in patients with CAD. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(8):1436–1442.
  • Keteyian SJ, Hibner BA, Bronsteen K, et al. Greater improvement in cardiorespiratory tness using higher-intensity interval training in the standard cardiac rehabilitation setting. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2014;34(2):98–105.
  • Cardozo GG, Oliveira RB, Farinatti PT. Effects of high intensity interval versus moderate continuous training on markers of ventilatory and cardiac ef ciency in coronary heart disease patients. Scienti cWorld- Journal. 2015;2015:192479.
  • Conraads VM, Pattyn N, De Maeyer C, et al. Aerobic interval training and continuous training equally improve aerobic exercise capacity in patients with coronary artery disease: the SAINTEX-CAD study. Int J Cardiol. 2015;179:203–210.
  • Currie KD, Bailey KJ, Jung ME, McKelvie RS, MacDonald MJ. Effects of resistance training combined with moderate-intensity endurance or low-volume high-intensity interval exercise on cardiovascular risk fac- tors in patients with coronary artery disease. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;18(6): 637–642.
  • Kim C, Choi HE, Lim MH. Effect of high interval training in acute myocardial infarction patients with drug-eluting stent. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2015;94(10 Suppl 1):879–886.
  • Jaureguizar KV, Vicente-Campos D, Bautista LR, et al. Effect of high- intensity interval versus continuous exercise training on functional capacity and quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized clinical trial. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2016;36(2):96–105.
  • Möbius-Winkler S, Uhlemann M, Adams V, et al. Coronary collateral growth induced by physical exercise: results of the impact of intensive exercise training on coronary collateral circulation in patients with stable coronary artery disease (EXCITE) trial. Circulation. 2016;133(15): 1438–1448.
  • Prado DM, Rocco EA, Silva AG, et al. Effects of continuous vs interval exercise training on oxygen uptake ef ciency slope in patients with coronary artery disease. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2016;49(2):e4890.
  • Pattyn N, Vanhees L, Cornelissen VA, et al. The long-term effects of a randomized trial comparing aerobic interval versus continuous training in coronary artery disease patients: 1-year data from the SAINTEX- CAD study. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016;23(11):1154–1164.
  • Biddle SJ, Batterham AM. High-intensity interval exercise training for public health: a big HIT or shall we HIT it on the head?. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:95.
  • Jung ME, Bourne JE, Beauchamp MR, Robinson E, Little JP. High- intensity interval training as an ef cacious alternative to moderate- intensity continuous training for adults with prediabetes. J Diabetes Res. 2015;2015:191595.
  • Thum JS, Parsons G, Whittle T, Astorino TA. High-intensity interval training elicits higher enjoyment than moderate intensity continuous exercise. PLoS One. 2017;12(1):e0166299.
  • Martinez N, Kilpatrick MW, Salomon K, Jung ME, Little JP. Affec- tive and enjoyment responses to high-intensity interval training in overweight-to-obese and insuf ciently active adults. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2015;37(2):138–149.